Hysteroscopy – a modern method of diagnosis
Hysteroscopy allows for an almost painless, precise assessment of the inside of the uterus in the conditions of a gynaecological office.
During the examination, the patient can also observe the inside of her own uterus on the monitor screen, and after the procedure she returns home.
Jakub Śliwa: Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the most common gynaecological disorders in women around the world. They can occur at any age – in both menstruating and postmenopausal women, i.e. after the last menstruation. Due to the common occurrence and often the lack of other ailments, many women are not aware of the serious causes of their formation.
Often, women do not know how to act in the event of the emergence of this type of disorder: should they accept it and just observe the symptoms, or should they be diagnosed immediately, and when appropriate therapy is needed? Most often they are a symptom of functional or hormonal disorders, but sometimes they can also be a signal of an abnormal process inside the uterus, unfortunately also cancerous. In the event of any bleeding disorders, e.g. heavy menstruation, haemorrhages, intermenstrual bleeding or premenstrual spotting, it is essential to see a gynaecologist as soon as possible for consultation and gynaecological examination. It is also necessary to perform additional diagnostics, e.g. hormonal tests, cytological evaluation of the cervix and ultrasound examination of the sexual organ in order to look for the so-called organic causes of abnormal bleeding. The most common organic lesions appearing in the uterine cavity include polyps, myomas, often distorting the uterine cavity and disrupting the contractility of the uterine muscle, leading to prolonged heavy menstrual bleeding with clots. Unfortunately, both in the cervix and in the uterine cavity there are also precancerous conditions and malignant neoplasms – cancers. Delay in their diagnosis and treatment can lead to the process becoming so advanced that metastases or pain occur and the woman can no longer be helped. Fortunately, the advances in today’s medicine come to the aid of patients. Currently, the equipment used in gynaecological diagnostics allows for direct viewing of the uterine cavity from the inside, without cutting the abdomen – almost like a keyhole and confirming the presence of the above-mentioned pathological changes in the uterus, determining their size, location and removal of abnormal growths. In addition, it offers the possibility of taking targeted sections for histopathological examination and determining whether we are dealing with a malignant or benign process. Such equipment is defined as endoscopic and is based on the most modern optical devices and their miniaturization. The width of the optics has been reduced to a few millimetres, which allows for an almost painless, precise assessment of the interior of the uterus in the office environment. This procedure is called hysteroscopy (HSC). No special preparations are required to perform such a procedure, apart from the qualifying visit.
The procedure is performed under local anaesthesia, it takes only a few minutes and consists in introducing the optics through the cervical canal into the uterine cavity and expanding its interior with fluid. During the examination, the patient can also observe the inside of her own uterus on the monitor screen, and after the procedure she returns home. Due to the good tolerance of hysteroscopy, slight discomfort during the procedure, the possibility of performing it without hospitalization and, above all, the possibility of taking precise specimens for histopathological evaluation, this is a modern procedure with high medical value – in a word, a procedure of 21st century medicine.
Autor Ginekolog Wrocław Histeroskopia Centrum Zdrowia Medfemina